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Where are the available workers?

According to data as of the end of the second half of 2018, 839 400 registered the unemployed had a profession, representing 86.63% of the total number of unemployed persons.

Unemployed persons, previously employed by selected occupational groups were as follows:

  • service and sales workers – 196 500 persons (23.41 % of the unemployed)
  • craft and related trade workers – 191 100 persons (22.76 %)
  • technicians and associate professionals – 99 900 persons (11.90 %)
  • elementary occupations – 92 100 persons  (10,98%)
  • professionals – 82 000 persons (9,76%)

 

Where are the available jobs?

The growth of the Polish economy is generating an increase in the number of job vacancies and demand for workers. A survey of labour market demand conducted by the Central Statistical Office (GUS) among businesses employing more than one person shows that, on average, most job adverts in 2017 appeared in the following economic sectors: services (approx. 57.2 %) and industry (approx. 42.1 %), whereas the fewest vacancies were in agriculture (approx. 0.7 %).

According to the survey, the highest number of job vacancies occurred in the following occupational groups: craft and related trades workers (approx. 29.2 %), plant and machine operators and assemblers (approx. 16.4 %), professionals (approx. 15.6 %), service and sales workers (approx. 12.3 %). 

In the second half of 2017, the highest numbers of vacancies and occupational activation places reported to labour offices were available in the following sectors of the PKD (Polish Classification of Activities):

  • administrative and support service activities — 185 000 adverts;
  • manufacturing – 149 900 adverts;
  • construction – 111 800 adverts;
  • wholesale and retail trade – 109 100 adverts;
  • transportation and storage – 38 100 adverts.

In the second half of 2017, the highest number of vacancies and occupational activation places reported to labour offices were recorded among the following occupations:

  • sales worker – 30 300 adverts;
  • stock clerk – 29 200 adverts;
  • building construction labourer – 28 800 adverts;
  • economic labourer – 21 400 adverts;
  • hand packer – 20 500 adverts;
  • other manufacturing labourers – 19 200 job adverts;
  • other elementary workers not elsewhere classified – 19 200 job adverts;
  • welder – 13 700 adverts;
  • general office clerk – 12 900 adverts;
  • other general office clerks – 12 000 adverts.

Based on the results of the monitoring of surplus and shortage occupations carried out by the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy in the second half of 2017, 52 shortage occupations were identified at the national level (mostly 'IT' jobs):

  • Application programmers, 
  • Web and multimedia developers,
  • Systems administrators, 
  • Software developers, 
  • Information and communications technology sales professionals, 
  • Web technicians, 
  • Computer networks professionals,
  • IT and telecommunication managers.

Shortage occupations also include employment agents and contractors, odd job persons, contact centre information clerks, survey and market research interviewers, personal service workers not elsewhere classified, fast food preparers, prison officers, craft and related trades workers not elsewhere classified, real estate agents and property managers, financial and insurance services branch managers, technical and medical sales professionals (excluding ICT), foreign language teachers, refuse sorters, plastic products machine operators, lifting truck operators, building frame and related trades workers not elsewhere specified, finance managers, shelf fillers, stock clerks, door to door salespersons, sewing machine operators, financial and investment advisers, commercial sales representatives, sales workers not elsewhere classified, assemblers not elsewhere classified, personnel and careers professionals, nursing professionals, structural metal prepares and erectors, legal secretaries, payroll clerks, manufacturing managers, paper products machine operators, retail and wholesale trade managers, industrial and production engineers, bus and tram drivers, teacher assistants, training and staff development professionals, sales and marketing managers, heavy truck and lorry drivers, rubber products machine operators, real estate market professionals, contact centre salespersons, valuers and loss assessors, policy and planning managers.

At the national level, the following 14 occupational groups were in balance: telecommunications engineers, security workers not elsewhere classified, medical specialists (with a second-degree specialisation or a title of specialist), pharmacists without or during specialisation, operators of earthmoving and related equipment, restaurant managers, business services and administration managers not elsewhere classified, lawyers, building and related electricians, construction managers, supply, distribution and related managers, electrical engineers, human resources workers, life science technicians (excluding medical).

The fact that a given occupation group is a shortage group or is balanced at the national level does not mean that the same tendency is present in all provinces. The situation in this respect remains diversified. 

Short overview of the labour market:

Poland is a country situated by the Baltic Sea and its eastern border is also the external border of the European Union (the EU) with Ukraine and Belarus. Its surface area is 312 700 km2 and it has a population of approximately 38.5 million. The country’s territory is divided into 16 highly diverse regions (voivodships) and 380 districts (poviats).

Poland is one of the fastest developing EU countries, with economic growth of 3.7% in 2018. It is estimated that in 2019 will grow by 4.4 % and in 2020 will grow annually 3.7%. Poland’s key industrial sectors are: mining, energy production, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, automotive and electromechanical industries such as fine mechanics, electronics and electrical engineering, as well as transport, food, textiles and clothing industries. In the third quarter of 2018, 58.4% of the total number of the employed worked in services, 31.4% in industry and 9.8% in agriculture sector.

EMPLOYED PERSONS

In the third quarter of 2018, the employed population comprised 16617 thousand (the majority of which constituted persons at working age – 96.0%, i.e. 15957 thousand employed persons) and it increased both: as compared to the second quarter of 2018 (by 0.3%), and over the year (by 0.6%).

Characteristics of the employed population in the third quarter of 2018

  • 71.0% of the total of the employed had at least secondary education; as regards sex, this share was significantly higher in the female population than among men – 80.3% as compared to 63.4%. Employed persons with tertiary education constituted 35.2% of the total number of the employed.
  • There were 13222 thousand persons, i.e. 79.6% of the total number of the employed who worked as employees. The number of self-employed persons comprised 2961 thousand (i.e. 17.8% of the total the employed). Contributing family workers comprised 434 thousand persons, i.e. 2.6% of the total number of the employed.
  • Population of employed persons who had the contract for unlimited duration comprised 3164 thousand persons, which constituted 23.9% of the total number of employees. Among persons who had the contract for limited duration men were slightly prevailing – their share comprised 50.9% as compared to 49.1% for women.
  • There were 1169 thousand persons (i.e. 7.0% of the total number of the employed) who worked part-time, more often they were women than men – 10.3% of the total number of employed women worked shorter hours than full-time as compared to 4.4% of men.
  • The highest number of persons were employed in the service sector – 9697 thousand persons, which constituted 58.4% of the total number of the employed. Persons employed in the industrial sector (5217 thousand) constituted 31.4%, while in the agricultural sector (1622 thousand) – 9.8% of the total number of the employed . The highest number of men were employed in manufacturing (25.5%), while in case of women – in trade related activities (17.3%). Among urban residents, as well as in rural areas dominant was work in manufacturing (respectively 19.6% and 22.5%).
  • Average weekly working time in all jobs (the main and additional one) comprised 40.8 hours and was slightly higher among the rural population (42.4 hours), than urban one (39.8 hours). Women worked shorter hours than men (respectively: 38.6 hours and 42.5 hours).
  • More than one job had 839 thousand persons. The share of this population in the total number of the employed amounted to 5.0%. An additional job more often performed men than women (5.9% of the total of employed men as compared to 4.1% of women) and rural residents than urban ones (respectively: 6.9% and 3.8%). Additional work was most often performed in agriculture (40.0% of the total of the additionally employed), then in education (10.0%) and in human health care and social work (9.1%).
  • Other job than the currently performed was sought by 209 thousand of the employed, which constituted 1.3% of the total of the employed. The most important reason for seeking work was willingness to improve financial conditions. This reason was indicated by 116 thousand persons, i.e. 55.5% of the total number of persons seeking another job. The second largest group constituted persons seeking better working conditions other than financial ones – 24 thousand persons (11.5%), the next group – persons looking for a job in accordance with their qualifications – 19 thousand persons (9.1%). The number of employed persons interested in taking up work within the European Union comprised 35 thousand persons (16.7% of the total number of persons seeking another job).

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE POPULATION AGED 15 AND MORE

In the third quarter of 2018, the economically active population aged 15 years and more comprised 17279 thousand persons and it increased as compared to the second quarter of 2018 (by 97 thousand, i.e. by 0.6%), whereas it decreased over the year (by 48 thousand, i.e. by 0.3%). The population of the economically inactive aged 15 years and more amounted to 13139 thousand persons and it decreased as compared to both: the second quarter of 2018 (by 107 thousand, i.e. by 0.8%) as well as the situation observed a year ago (by 112 thousand, i.e. by 0.8%). The number of persons not in employment (the unemployed, as well as the economically inactive aged 15 years and more) per 1000 employed persons decreased as compared to both: the previous quarter and the last year. In the third quarter of 2018 the rate amounted to 831 persons (in urban areas 820, in rural areas – 846), in the second quarter of 2018 – 837 (in urban areas 829, in rural areas – 849), in the third quarter of 2017 it amounted to 852 (in urban areas – 850, in rural areas – 855). The activity rate in the third quarter of 2018 amounted to 56.8%, and it increased as compared to the second quarter of 2018 (by 0.3 percentage point), also it slightly increased as compared to the third quarter of 2017 (by 0.1 percentage point). Slightly more evident changes than in the overall population may be observed among persons at the working age2. The activity rate for this population comprised 77.3% and it grew both: over the quarter, as well as over the year (respectively by 0.7 and 1.2 percentage point). Similarly to the previous quarters, the evidently higher activity rate for persons aged 15 years and more characterized men than women (65.5% versus 48.9%). Lower difference in respect to sex was observed among persons at the working age (81.1% for men versus 73.1% for women). The place of residence (urban/rural) does not have such an impact as sex on the range of the activity rate for persons aged 15 years and more.

UNEMPLOYED PERSONS

In the third quarter of 2018, the unemployed population (EUROSTAT) comprised 662 thousand persons and it increased as compared to the previous quarter (by 45 thousand, i.e. by 7.3%), albeit it decreased as compared to the same period of the last year (by 156 thousand, i.e. by 19.1%). The observed over the quarter increase in the number of the unemployed concerned all analysed subpopulations. A drop observed over the year also characterized all observed subpopulations, although to a greater extent it concerned women than men, while in respect to the place of residence – urban residents than the rural ones. Among unemployed persons the majority still constitute men – their percentage share in this population in the third quarter of 2018 amounted to 56.8%. In the analysed period, urban residents constituted 55.3% of the total number of the unemployed. In the third quarter of 2018, the unemployment rate total comprised 3.8%. Its higher level was observed for men (4.0%) than for women (3.7%), while regarding the place of residence among rural than urban residents (4.3% versus 3.5%). The unemployment intensity increased as compared to the previous quarter (by 0.2 percentage point), while it decreased over the year (by 0.9 percentage point). A growth in the unemployment rate as compared to the second quarter of 2018 was observed in all analysed subpopulations with the exception of urban areas overall, where the unemployment rate stayed at the same level as the last quarter. While the drop in the unemployment rate observed over the year characterized all analysed subpopulations.

 Characteristics of the unemployed population in the third quarter of 2018

  • The largest population among the unemployed constitute persons aged 25-34 years (186 thousand), while the smallest – persons aged 55-74 years (68 thousand), and the lowest level of the unemployment rate was observed in this group – 2.3%. The highest unemployment rate is still observed among the youth, i.e. persons aged 15-24 years – in the third quarter of 2018, it comprised 12.7% (population of unemployed persons in this age group comprised 164 thousand).
  • The lowest intensity of unemployment concerned persons with tertiary education; in the third quarter of 2018, the unemployment rate for this population comprised 2.1%. The highest unemployment rate (9.2%) was observed among persons with the lowest level of education (not higher than lower secondary).
  • The number of unemployed persons still seeking a job amounted to 613 thousand (including 352 thousand men), which constituted 92.6% of the total unemployed population (93.6% for men and 91.3% for women). Other unemployed persons were not looking for a job, because they had already found it and were waiting to start work (within 3 months) and were available to take it up.
  •  Unemployed persons most often looked for a job through: relatives and friends this method indicated 422 thousand persons, studying advertisements (411 thousand persons), powiat labour office (391 thousand persons) and the direct contact with the employer (335 thousand persons).
  • The unemployed most often declared that they sought full-time work as employees (50.0% of the total of the unemployed) or in any length of working time (27.2%).

Hot jobs:

Top 10 of the most required occupations in Poland

1. accountants and bookkeeping clerks

2. doctors, nurses & midwifes

3. truck drivers & bus drivers

4. welders (MIG/MAG/TIG)

5. stock clerks

6. construction workers

7. electricians  

8. craft occupations related to catering industry: chefs, cooks, bakers, confectioners

9. craft occupations related to construction sector: bricklayers, plasterers, joiners, carpenters, roofers, pavers

10. hairdressers, beauticians 

 

Please find below information about living and working conditions in Poland:

https://eures.praca.gov.pl/zal/zycie_i_praca_w_polsce/polska-ang.pdf (EN)

https://eures.praca.gov.pl/zal/zycie_i_praca_w_polsce/polska-niem.pdf (DE)

https://eures.praca.gov.pl/zal/zycie_i_praca_w_polsce/polska-pl.pdf (PL)

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