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According to data as of the end of the second half of 2018, 839 400 registered the unemployed had a profession, representing 86.63% of the total number of unemployed persons.
Unemployed persons, previously employed by selected occupational groups were as follows:
The growth of the Polish economy is generating an increase in the number of job vacancies and demand for workers. A survey of labour market demand conducted by the Central Statistical Office (GUS) among businesses employing more than one person shows that, on average, most job adverts in 2017 appeared in the following economic sectors: services (approx. 57.2 %) and industry (approx. 42.1 %), whereas the fewest vacancies were in agriculture (approx. 0.7 %).
According to the survey, the highest number of job vacancies occurred in the following occupational groups: craft and related trades workers (approx. 29.2 %), plant and machine operators and assemblers (approx. 16.4 %), professionals (approx. 15.6 %), service and sales workers (approx. 12.3 %).
In the second half of 2017, the highest numbers of vacancies and occupational activation places reported to labour offices were available in the following sectors of the PKD (Polish Classification of Activities):
In the second half of 2017, the highest number of vacancies and occupational activation places reported to labour offices were recorded among the following occupations:
Based on the results of the monitoring of surplus and shortage occupations carried out by the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy in the second half of 2017, 52 shortage occupations were identified at the national level (mostly 'IT' jobs):
Shortage occupations also include employment agents and contractors, odd job persons, contact centre information clerks, survey and market research interviewers, personal service workers not elsewhere classified, fast food preparers, prison officers, craft and related trades workers not elsewhere classified, real estate agents and property managers, financial and insurance services branch managers, technical and medical sales professionals (excluding ICT), foreign language teachers, refuse sorters, plastic products machine operators, lifting truck operators, building frame and related trades workers not elsewhere specified, finance managers, shelf fillers, stock clerks, door to door salespersons, sewing machine operators, financial and investment advisers, commercial sales representatives, sales workers not elsewhere classified, assemblers not elsewhere classified, personnel and careers professionals, nursing professionals, structural metal prepares and erectors, legal secretaries, payroll clerks, manufacturing managers, paper products machine operators, retail and wholesale trade managers, industrial and production engineers, bus and tram drivers, teacher assistants, training and staff development professionals, sales and marketing managers, heavy truck and lorry drivers, rubber products machine operators, real estate market professionals, contact centre salespersons, valuers and loss assessors, policy and planning managers.
At the national level, the following 14 occupational groups were in balance: telecommunications engineers, security workers not elsewhere classified, medical specialists (with a second-degree specialisation or a title of specialist), pharmacists without or during specialisation, operators of earthmoving and related equipment, restaurant managers, business services and administration managers not elsewhere classified, lawyers, building and related electricians, construction managers, supply, distribution and related managers, electrical engineers, human resources workers, life science technicians (excluding medical).
The fact that a given occupation group is a shortage group or is balanced at the national level does not mean that the same tendency is present in all provinces. The situation in this respect remains diversified.
Poland is a country situated by the Baltic Sea and its eastern border is also the external border of the European Union (the EU) with Ukraine and Belarus. Its surface area is 312 700 km2 and it has a population of approximately 38.5 million. The country’s territory is divided into 16 highly diverse regions (voivodships) and 380 districts (poviats).
Poland is one of the fastest developing EU countries, with economic growth of 3.7% in 2018. It is estimated that in 2019 will grow by 4.4 % and in 2020 will grow annually 3.7%. Poland’s key industrial sectors are: mining, energy production, metallurgy, mechanical engineering, automotive and electromechanical industries such as fine mechanics, electronics and electrical engineering, as well as transport, food, textiles and clothing industries. In the third quarter of 2018, 58.4% of the total number of the employed worked in services, 31.4% in industry and 9.8% in agriculture sector.
In the third quarter of 2018, the employed population comprised 16617 thousand (the majority of which constituted persons at working age – 96.0%, i.e. 15957 thousand employed persons) and it increased both: as compared to the second quarter of 2018 (by 0.3%), and over the year (by 0.6%).
Characteristics of the employed population in the third quarter of 2018
ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE POPULATION AGED 15 AND MORE
In the third quarter of 2018, the economically active population aged 15 years and more comprised 17279 thousand persons and it increased as compared to the second quarter of 2018 (by 97 thousand, i.e. by 0.6%), whereas it decreased over the year (by 48 thousand, i.e. by 0.3%). The population of the economically inactive aged 15 years and more amounted to 13139 thousand persons and it decreased as compared to both: the second quarter of 2018 (by 107 thousand, i.e. by 0.8%) as well as the situation observed a year ago (by 112 thousand, i.e. by 0.8%). The number of persons not in employment (the unemployed, as well as the economically inactive aged 15 years and more) per 1000 employed persons decreased as compared to both: the previous quarter and the last year. In the third quarter of 2018 the rate amounted to 831 persons (in urban areas 820, in rural areas – 846), in the second quarter of 2018 – 837 (in urban areas 829, in rural areas – 849), in the third quarter of 2017 it amounted to 852 (in urban areas – 850, in rural areas – 855). The activity rate in the third quarter of 2018 amounted to 56.8%, and it increased as compared to the second quarter of 2018 (by 0.3 percentage point), also it slightly increased as compared to the third quarter of 2017 (by 0.1 percentage point). Slightly more evident changes than in the overall population may be observed among persons at the working age2. The activity rate for this population comprised 77.3% and it grew both: over the quarter, as well as over the year (respectively by 0.7 and 1.2 percentage point). Similarly to the previous quarters, the evidently higher activity rate for persons aged 15 years and more characterized men than women (65.5% versus 48.9%). Lower difference in respect to sex was observed among persons at the working age (81.1% for men versus 73.1% for women). The place of residence (urban/rural) does not have such an impact as sex on the range of the activity rate for persons aged 15 years and more.
In the third quarter of 2018, the unemployed population (EUROSTAT) comprised 662 thousand persons and it increased as compared to the previous quarter (by 45 thousand, i.e. by 7.3%), albeit it decreased as compared to the same period of the last year (by 156 thousand, i.e. by 19.1%). The observed over the quarter increase in the number of the unemployed concerned all analysed subpopulations. A drop observed over the year also characterized all observed subpopulations, although to a greater extent it concerned women than men, while in respect to the place of residence – urban residents than the rural ones. Among unemployed persons the majority still constitute men – their percentage share in this population in the third quarter of 2018 amounted to 56.8%. In the analysed period, urban residents constituted 55.3% of the total number of the unemployed. In the third quarter of 2018, the unemployment rate total comprised 3.8%. Its higher level was observed for men (4.0%) than for women (3.7%), while regarding the place of residence among rural than urban residents (4.3% versus 3.5%). The unemployment intensity increased as compared to the previous quarter (by 0.2 percentage point), while it decreased over the year (by 0.9 percentage point). A growth in the unemployment rate as compared to the second quarter of 2018 was observed in all analysed subpopulations with the exception of urban areas overall, where the unemployment rate stayed at the same level as the last quarter. While the drop in the unemployment rate observed over the year characterized all analysed subpopulations.
Characteristics of the unemployed population in the third quarter of 2018
Top 10 of the most required occupations in Poland
1. accountants and bookkeeping clerks
2. doctors, nurses & midwifes
3. truck drivers & bus drivers
4. welders (MIG/MAG/TIG)
5. stock clerks
6. construction workers
8. craft occupations related to catering industry: chefs, cooks, bakers, confectioners
9. craft occupations related to construction sector: bricklayers, plasterers, joiners, carpenters, roofers, pavers
10. hairdressers, beauticians
Please find below information about living and working conditions in Poland: